Is everyone ready for 2014 ?? 2013 has been an amazing year, I hope you all have had very memorable, fun-filled, love-filled years. Now is the time to look back on what we have accomplished, the good times we have shared, and the great food we have eaten ; ). Let’s start the year in review now with some of the most popular recipes of 2013 !!
Everyone loves lists, so let’s look at 2013’s top five recipes from my website. While they are top five this year, they are timeless and will serve you well for years to come. Many of them are from my new cookbook, Fabio’s Italian Kitchen – for more of these great recipes don’t hesitate to order your copy today : ).
First we look at number five – one of my nonna’s specialties – http://fabioviviani.com/
Number four is one of the most important recipes you will ever need… if you’re going to be cooking Italian food ; ). My tomato sauce with oil and garlic is the perfect tomato sauce for just about every recipe that calls for a tomato sauce. http://fabioviviani.com/
The number three recipe of 2013 is my dark beer and black pepper short ribs, http://fabioviviani.com/
The second most-viewed recipe of 2013 is my mother’s meatballs !! http://fabioviviani.com/
The number one recipe of the year is a humbling reminder of how I have gotten to where I am today, my Tiramisu recipe !! http://fabioviviani.com/
Happy new year !! I hope this countdown has been a good practice for you, enjoy your night and the new year safely and responsibly. How do you plan to celebrate ?? Tell me on twitter @Fabioviviani #newyearseve.
Merry #Christmas to #TeamFabio !! Hopefully all of your shopping is done, the presents are wrapped, the halls are decked, and the sides are cooked ; ). Just a little reminder, my newest cookbook Fabio’s Italian Kitchen makes a great gift, even if it is not Christmas anymore, it is still the season of giving !!
All I have to do is turn on the TV or go to any store – even a tiny store to see how much America loves Christmas. It is a huge part of the culture, and it is so popular of a holiday that even many non-Christians celebrate. It is just too fun, what can I say??
America does it big, but I am sorry everyone, Italy does it biggest ; ). In fact, you have Italy to thank for much of the history of Christmas. Even before all of the things we associate with Christmas were popular, the Roman Empire (which Italy was a part of) celebrated on December 25th. So as you can see, we have plenty of practice with this wonderful holiday.
Many of the celebrations share similar characteristics, and there is one part that we can all agree on – a delicious Christmas dinner is something that is common to everyone who celebrates around the world : ).
If you are roasting, you are in luck !! I recently wrote a piece on everything you need to know about the process for Thaksgiving, read up on it here: http://fabioviviani.com/blog/
It is a little late to change the plans now, but in Southern Italy there is an amazing Christmas Eve dinner feast where observers eat seven, that’s right seven different types of fish called La Vigilia Napoletana. “Why so many fish?” Much of Italy is Catholic, and Catholic tradition says that Christmas Eve is a day where no meat is to be consumed. Not everyone follows these guidelines – in fact you are never supposed to eat meat on Fridays, but you get the idea of how this came to be such a tradition in many Italian families. In fact, for many there is a whole ritual where there are three days of celebration around Christmas, on the 24th, 25th and the 26th !! Now this is not typical of all of Italy however, it is mostly in the south and not very popular in Florence.
If you need some side-dish guidance, I have you covered !!
Baked pasta is always the perfect choice for a side at any occasion. Easy is better, because I’m sure you are going to be doing a million things at once come tomorrow. This video is the solution: http://fabioviviani.com/
Dessert is also very important !! For that, here’s the video of my mom’s incredible tiramisu recipe: http://screen.yahoo.com/
What food traditions does your family have for the holiday season ?? Tell me on Twitter @Fabioviviani #Christmas !!
This week on Friday, December 17th, we are celebrating National Underdog Day. This is one of the stranger holidays of the year, but it has a very positive message behind it which I think makes it so perfect – the holiday itself is an underdog !!
This is a day where we look at all of the unappreciated hardworking unsung heroes of the world. When I think about it, it hits a little closer to home than many people might think. Chefs are underdogs by default. How many chefs do we know about offhand ?? Well, I am preaching to the choir here because I am sure most of #TeamFabio knows plenty of chefs offhand, but for the general population, not too many.
Television has given chefs (along with many other professionals who are underdogs by nature) the opportunity to come out of the kitchen and be something more than just the food they are known for cooking. So maybe the average foodie knows at most 50 chefs off-hand. That is an incredibly small number when you think about all of the people who are fed on a daily basis.
Even on television I was an underdog. To myself I am not an underdog, I know what I am capable of, I know that I have a lot of experience after having been a chef in Italy for almost two decades. To everyone else, I am the foreign hunk who can hardly speak English !! Hard work prevails just like the American Dream however, and I came out as the fan favorite and went on to return to the show and have a ton of fun with the cast and the challenges.
It has been a while since those days, and although I am no longer the underdog, I still know the feeling and do appreciate all the work that the underdogs of the world do to survive and to make the world go round.
In celebration, this week I am giving you three all-new recipes inspired by the classics which have gotten me to where I am today. Here are some more classic, easy-to-make Italian comfort foods that are sure to put you on top of the world, even if you are the underdog ; ).
It is winter, so what better comfort food do we have than a delicious bowl of soup ?? Sometimes I wish I could just jump inside. In about a minute you will have the knowledge you need to cook my easy minestrone soup !! http://screen.yahoo.com/easy-
One of the most underrated recipes that is not only easy, but also fun and rewarding is FRESH PASTA !! Follow along my video here: http://screen.yahoo.com/fresh-
For more Italian recipes, be sure to order your copy of Fabio’s Italian Kitchen today !! It makes a great gift for the resident chef of the family. I am sure they will appreciate the inspiration : )
Who is your favorite underdog ?? Tell me on Twitter @Fabioviviani #underdog !!
We are now in the second week of December, and while we may have holidays on our minds, it is easy to forget one important one, and it is today: Happy Human Rights Day #Teamfabio !! Human Rights Day is a world holiday which first started a little over 60 years ago by the United Nations. Isn’t it amazing that we share this holiday with every country in the world ?? The only requirement to celebrate is that you are human ; ).
In honor of this special day, let’s take a trip around the world to experience some of the most diverse dishes that humans have created in various cultures.
We begin our journey in South America in the country of Bolivia. With one of the most diverse geographies and climates of the world, this country has everything to offer when it comes to food. From perfecting cured meat as a snack with an extremely long shelf life for extended journeys (charque – it even sounds kind of like jerky !!), to the rich, layered dish of rice, potato, thinly sliced beef, tomato, blend of tomato, parsley, and beets and topped off with two fried eggs (silpancho) it will be hard for us to move on to the next country. Although you may need to take a nap after you eat ; ).
Do you need some spice in your life ?? Well the best way is to put it in your mouth, and if you like the sinus-clearing sensation you get as your eyes tear up from extreme spiciness, then Ethiopia will be your favorite by far !! Ethiopia is like the major league of spiciness. When you are in the United States at an Ethiopian restaurant, it may be a little difficult to get the true experience because if the restaurant made their foods like they did in Ethiopia, people would not stop complaining. Many people say that if you ask nicely when you are ordering for maximum spiciness – tell them like it is at home – they might be able to help you out. Be sure to order the wot – this is the go-to spicy food in Ethiopian cuisine. Also known as wat, it is a stew or curry that can be made with beef, chicken, or lamb, spices (berbere), and vegetables. One unique feature about wot is how onions are typically used for the base of the stew and are basically melted or broken down before the other ingredients are added. Even if you are not big on spicy food you should still try wot it is amazing.
Now we are traveling to the beautiful country of Korea !! Korea’s cuisine is full of incredible dishes and flavors, but for today we are looking at Bibimbap. In English it is translated to mixed rice, but that name does not give it justice !! Eaten cold or hot (perfect if you are busy and have the ingredients pre-made), this dish is also layered – first there is white rice topped with seasoned, sauteed vegetables, chili pepper, sliced beef and/or a fried egg on top. It looks incredible, it tastes incredible, just mix them all up and enjoy.
Italian food will always have a special place in my heart, but as a chef I love to get out there and try what the world has to offer. It is great inspiration for new recipes. For more traditional Italian recipes, be sure to order a copy of my latest cookbook, Fabio’s Italian Kitchen today !! It’s the perfect stocking stuffer for the chef in your life. This is barely the tip of the iceberg when it comes to world foods. What is your favorite world food ?? Tweet me @Fabioviviani #humanrights !!
Happy Hanukkah #Teamfabio !! This year, Hanukkah started last week on the 27th of November, and will conclude this week on Thursday, December 5th. For those of you who are celebrating, I hope that this year’s Festival of Lights has been a truly memorable experience.
What better way is there to celebrate than with delicious foods ?? For those of you who are unfamiliar with traditional Jewish cuisine, I am here to show you the world !! It is important to note that during particular holidays, it is traditional to eat particular foods. For example, during Shavuot, it is customary to focus on eating foods with dairy. During Hanukkah, fried food are the traditional dishes of choice because of the significance of the oil used in the frying process. Although this is not the same type of miracle oil that lasted for 8 days (it should have only lasted one) after the Maccabee rebellion, but it is historically symbolic. We should all know at least some of the basics – the United States has the second largest Jewish population in the world. So let’s get to know our neighbor’s delicious foods.
Blintzes – These little crepe-like cakes are AMAZING !! They are very commonly made and eaten around Hanukkah and they are super easy to make. Around Shavuot, they are often stuffed with a creamy cheese filling that is also easy to make. You have to try them sometime. : )
Latkes – These are one of the most popular (if not the most popular) foods that is traditionally eaten during Hanukkah. They are fried potato pancakes without any dairy or meat products (the word to describe this in Hebrew is parve). While the normal potato recipe is the most common, there have been many variations to include cheese, leeks, cauliflower, and even tuna !!
Loukoumades – Another very popular fried treat that is a must-have for any Hanukkah celebration. Originally Greek in origin, they are essentially doughnuts, but they are also known as fried honey puffs. They are fairly easy to make and are delicious, so it is definitely worth your time : ).
Brisket – Now even though we might wish that we could live off of delicious fried pastries, we (assuming that you are not vegetarian or vegan) would be missing out on all of the steak, chicken, fish, and even veal. Beef brisket is a very popular main dish in the Hanukkah tradition – and it is an 8-day long tradition, so it is best to mix it up !! There are many beef brisket recipes, try my dry rub beef brisket.
Lamb – There are many things we can do with lamb as well, so it is easy to keep it traditional but fresh at the same time – the main ingredients for that is planning and preparation !! This week I am sharing two incredible lamb recipes with you, so be sure to give those a try and tell me how they turn out. : )
For even more ideas, be sure to purchase your copy of Fabio’s Italian Kitchen today. It makes a great gift, and the recipes inside will keep on giving every time you visit the lucky chef who will be receiving it ; ). What is your favorite Hanukkah food ?? Tweet me @Fabioviviani #Hanukkah !!
#Teamfabio we are approaching crunch time. It is two days until the most grueling (but rewarding) day of the year for any chef, professional or home cook, filled with marathon cooking as well as marathon eating. It is Thanksgiving, and I couldn’t be more thankful !! In fact, I am thankful for Thanksgiving existing and being able to celebrate it with people I care about. We did not have Thanksgiving in Italy, but I think there should be at least one day in each country all over the world where we are encouraged to be thankful, spend quality time with loved ones, AND make and eat delicious roasts all day !!
This week I am sharing three delicious turkey recipes with you – most people have a TON of leftovers after Thanksgiving, so here are some great ways to use your turkey on something other than cold turkey sandwiches at midnight ; ). If you want more amazing turkey recipes, be sure to get your copy of my newest cookbook, Fabio’s Italian Kitchen ASAP !! It makes a great stocking stuffer. : )
Turkey is the ultimate Thanksgiving food, and the primary way that America cooks their turkey is roasting. Here are some tips to take your roasting to the next level !! Also kudos to you if you are smoking or deep frying or some other alternative to roasting – it may take some extra work and some learning, but exploring different ways to cook classic dishes is great. You will become a better well-rounded chef by diversifying your skills. Show me your alternative turkey cooking on twitter @Fabioviviani.
One of the most important steps for roasting the perfect turkey is the brining process. For those of you who have never done this before and do not know what brining is – you have to do it this year so take that turkey out of the freezer now if you have not already because you are going to need to soak it defrosted in the liquid overnight.
Brining is similar to marinating. You collect your special blend of herbs and spices, water, salt, and whatever else you want to give its flavor to your turkey and mix it together. Then you need to find a way to soak the turkey inside of the brine. Many people do this with a bag – you put the bag in the fridge or you can use a cooler with ice if your fridge is full (which it might be because of all the side dishes for Thanksgiving), and you let it soak overnight. Ideally you want to make sure that all of the turkey is covered by the liquid, but if it is half full (I am an optimist) you can flip the bird over so that each side of the turkey gets an equal time in the brine.
Many turkeys are already brined, so try to look for one that has not been brined that says something like “natural” on it. If you are confused ask someone who works there they should know if they have any without brine or injected with salt. If it is already brined, you can still re-brine it, but try to put less salt in your own brine. People have done it and the turkey was not incredibly salty like some people are afraid of, but less salt is probably a good idea to be safe.
Second tip – now that you know how to brine, you are almost ready to stick your bird in the oven. Before you do this, make sure you go to the store and buy a meat thermometer. We want to have a safe and happy Thanksgiving weekend, so make sure your turkey is thoroughly cooked. It should be between 170 and 180 degrees at the thickest part of the bird. If you are cooking stuffing inside of the turkey (which is unnecessary but some people do it for tradition), you really need to make sure that the stuffing is at around 170 degrees as well – give or take 5 degrees.
Like cooking a good steak – you need to let the turkey do its own thing for about 20 minutes after the oven is off. The turkey takes longer than a steak because it is larger, but the same principle applies – when you cut into a steak that has not had its “me” time after being cooked, the juices spill out and your steak is not as juicy and delicious as it is supposed to be.
Great… now I want steak.
What tips do you have for roasting the perfect turkey ?? Tell me on Twitter @Fabioviviani #thanksgiving !! Tag me in your turkey pictures on instagram @Fabioviviani : )
Food is one thing that every human on the planet, I don’t care who you are, can bond over. The right meal in the right location can cause strangers to come together to enjoy a common experience. There is no truer case for this than with family as well.
One of the great things about being with family is the food we get to share with each other on a regular basis. In many families it is a ritual – dinner at this time, and everyone sits at the table sharing their experiences from the day.
I think that there should be even more time to bond before the table is set – in the kitchen !! I think one of the reasons why we see all this childhood obesity and unhealthy eating habits is because many children and even parents now that have no experience in the kitchen. They walk into a kitchen and it is like me walking into a garage to fix my car. I do not know what the hell I am doing and I am a little bit frightened by the pointy objects ; ).
Even if you yourself are unfamiliar with working in the kitchen, you owe it to your children and your children’s children to start learning now !! It is never too late – and that is part of my mission as a chef – sharing easy recipes that anyone can make. It is understandable that many people do not have family recipes passed down, so I am sharing my own with the world to make sure that when you do venture into the kitchen you are not walking blindly to the microwave with no plan. For even more recipes when you are off the internet – be sure to order your copy of my newest cookbook, Fabio’s Italian Kitchen right in time for Thanksgiving !!
Going back to the children – if you are just learning to cook, it is the perfect time to bring your kids into the kitchen and have some fun learning together !! I have cooked with kids before and you will be surprised at how fast they pick things up. It’s the perfect time for them to learn now because their brains are like sponges at an early age.
However, a huge problem that many new parents struggle with is cooking foods that their children enjoy and getting their children to try different foods. One major thing that every parent should know is that their children idolize you. You are the apple of their eyes and they want to be you for a long time before they hit the teenage years ; ). The best way to encourage healthy lifestyle and eating habits through your own actions. If that means hiding your shameful eating of junk food and chips, sacrifices have to be made !! When your baby is around, reach for the apple instead of processed, fatty, and salty junk foods. Not only is it good for you, but your children will be picking up apples and great habits early in life.
Two of Italy’s most popular foods are excellent to make with children – fresh pasta and fresh pizza. With fresh pasta you can make basically any shape or type of pasta – it is like an arts and crafts session for kids. For pizza the kids get to play with the dough, roll it out, and be creative with the toppings. It is super fun – here are my fresh pasta tips, be sure to brush up before you start http://shine.yahoo.com/shine-food/fabio-s-perfect-pasta-2594301.html. If you decide to go with pizza, which is also an excellent choice, I also have the perfect video for you !! http://shine.yahoo.com/shine-food/fabios-ultimate-homemade-pizza-184100288.html. Couple this with my recipes for this week and you are all set for cooking with your children.
In addition to cooking with your children, it is also important to cook a variety of foods to show them what exists. A useful tip I have heard is to arrange meals in segments on the plate and tell your kids to grade the food from A to F like in school. This way you will know what foods your kids like. Another great tip to get your kids interested in fruits and veggies is to really “act” when you eat them like you are eating the best food you have ever eaten. Your kids will pick up on this and want to feel the same way when they are eating ; ).
What are your favorite foods to cook with your children ?? Tweet me @Fabioviviani #family !!
Hello #Teamfabio, I hope everyone had a great Veteran’s Day yesterday and over the weekend !! Although I was born and raised in Italy, I have nothing but respect, gratitude, and admiration for the US military and the military tradition in America. I understand the importance we place on Veteran’s Day to be thankful for the sacrifices that people make to help us all as a country, and I think it’s fantastic that we get a holiday to remind us every year to thank the heroes that are our neighbors, our friends, and our family members.
For this week, we are going beyond the call of duty and are going to cook up some delicious recipes that (if it is possible) we can share with some hungry veterans !! Yes, Veteran’s Day was yesterday, but let’s extend Veteran’s Day to Veteran’s week. ; )
You may be thinking, “Yes Fabio, it is very important to help the troops, but with food ??” Food brings something that many Veterans were unable to have while deployed in some of the toughest environments that human beings can tolerate. Whether it is the extreme conditions on the outside or the tough emotional stress that being deployed is associated with, comfort can be very tough to come by.
Now there are also people in the military whose entire jobs consist of cooking in military cafeterias. I am positive that they are amazing cooks, but they do have to work with what they are given from the military budget. It is cafeteria food, after all, but I am sure these chefs are talented and make it much better than most people would expect.
So that is where homecooked comfort foods come in !! This week we have roasted turkey with fontina stuffed potatoes, speck-wrapped potatoes, and sweet potatoes with spiced almonds Good luck finding that in any cafeteria ; ). You may see the word comfort foods used a lot and be wondering what exactly it is, that makes sense because it is a lot of things depending on who you are talking to !! Ask a man what his comfort foods are and the answer will most likely be different than a woman’s – except for ice cream !! According to a study done by the brainiacs at Cornell, men choose heartier foods like soup, pizza, contrasted with the popular choices by women who pick chocolate and cookies. Read more about the study here: http://foodpsychology.cornell.
Now if we do not know any veterans personally, that is not a problem, there are many ways we can give our thanks and our thoughts to the people of the armed forces. Volunteering is a great way to do this !! Unfortunately there are many veterans in this great country who have fallen on hard times – after all, they are people as well, so a great way to help out and show our thanks is to volunteer with your local Veterans Administration to fill whatever need is available. To volunteer directly with a local VA, be sure to visit http://www.volunteer.va.gov/
Hello #TeamFabio! I want to start out this week by wishing everyone a happy National Men Make Dinner Day this Thursday !! Of course for me and many other male chefs this is not a big deal, but for many men, cooking is a magical, impossible chore. Don’t get me wrong, sometimes it is good to stay away from what you are terrible at – you do not see me trying to land airplanes, although I would probably land them like a champion ; ), but this is not landing airplanes it is a simple, useful skill for survival that every man and woman should at least know the basics of. I have more basic cooking info, including my own kitchen essentials, in my newest cookbook Fabio’s Italian Kitchen, so make sure you order a copy today !!
For this week, we are going to the basics – spices !! Now there are all kinds of spices so I know it can be a little confusing and maybe even scary for some of you to stand in front of the spices in the grocery store and try to pick something that will take your dinner to the next level. And that is exactly what it does and what makes knowing about spices important. Sure anyone can throw some salt and pepper on a steak and call it a day, but when you add the finer spices to your dish, it adds a new dimension to your cooking as well as your tasting experience.
Let’s start with the most basic spice there is: black pepper. This spice is made from the dried, unripe berries of the pepper plant. It is often used either ground or whole, and it is, like salt, one of the universal spices that can be found in nearly all cultures in the world, but it is especially important in dishes which call for curry or other spice mixes. One of my favorite Indian restaurants, Rasa in London, makes an amazing crab dish with tons of black pepper – screaming hot and absolutely delicious.
One spice you may not be familiar with are cardamom pods. Cardamom pods are small green husks with little black seeds inside. They have a strong citrusy, some people also say minty eucalyptus flavor that you either love or hate – I love it! Use them whole to perfume rice dishes, or ground up in a curry. In India, cardamom’s also used in sweets and desserts, much like we use vanilla in the west. They are also found in sweet breads in northern European countries. If you buy cardamom, it is best to buy them whole in the pods rather than ground up because this will preserve the flavors. You can do the grinding yourself when you are about to use them : ).
We all know cinnamon, but did you know you can use them in foods that are not sweet ?? Cinnamon sticks give a wonderful rich, musky flavor to meat curries and stews; Sicilians use them to flavor their beautiful tomato ragu. Ground cinnamon is great in cakes and biscuits, and essential in apple pie.
Cloves are small and dark brown with a very strong, pungent perfume and flavor. In Africa, the Middle East and southern Asia, cloves are used in stews, curries and rice dishes. In the UK, cloves are most often used in desserts and cakes. They go very well with apples and citrus fruit like oranges and clementines. They also go great in pumpkin and other squash dishes. If you are in the fall spirit and cooking one of these squashes, use a little cloves to spice it up a little bit. Do not use too much, they are very potent !!
Coriander seeds are small, round and light brown in color. When crushed in a pestle and mortar they have a fantastically sweet, orangey, nutty smell that goes well in curry mixes, pickles and stews. Like cumin seeds, they love to be toasted in a pan first before they’re crushed. A great way of spicing up carrot soup!
Cumin seeds are small and brown with a mild. sweet, aromatic flavor that people often associate with curries. Their flavor can be perked up a notch or two by toasting them lightly in a dry frying pan before grinding. I love to stir cumin into a chilli at the last minute, and it’s the business in guacamole.
These are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to spices. Once you get all of the spices themselves down, there are a few common regional spice mixtures to be explored as well.
What is your favorite spice ?? Tweet me @Fabioviviani !!
Halloween is almost here !! It was once trick or treat for us, now it is always treat – especially when I share my recipes with you every week ; ).
Do not ruin your appetites with candy this year – save that for the kids who need to lose their baby teeth. We can keep our teeth and our pant size by sticking to my home cooked, delicious, orange-themed foods this week – besides, I already told you how to make your own candies last year, if you want to do that again, check out the easy recipes here: http://fabioviviani.com/blog/
This year we are going to be focusing on the big, orange icon of the Fall season that so many of us will be scooping out and carving faces into: Pumpkins !! Pumpkins are delicious and very inexpensive foods that you can make many different recipes from and keep that fall theme. However, how much do you know about picking the right pumpkin from the patch ?? For more orange, fall-friendly recipes, be sure to order a copy of my latest cookbook, Fabio’s Italian Kitchen !!
The pumpkin you want to carve and the pumpkin you want to eat are two different things. Besides, you cannot really use the pumpkin you are carving – but you can keep the seeds and bake them as a snack for later : ). For cooking with pumpkins, we want to pick a pumpkin that is smaller than the normal carving pumpkins. It should be anywhere from 2-6 pounds, and you should be looking for “sugar pumpkins” rather than carving pumpkins. One of the physical differences between these two is that the sugar pumpkins are, as the name suggests, sweeter. They also tend to have thicker flesh. For carving pumpkins it is better that the flesh is thin because it makes carving them easier – but that makes cooking them more of a hassle.
In addition to the size, you need to be careful to select the most symmetrical pumpkin on the patch. The skin should not be too shiny – if it is very shiny that means that the pumpkin was picked too early. You also need to make sure that the skin has no discolorations or scratches because these bruises and scratches can rot a pumpkin in the blink of an eye. Kind of like a banana going brown. I swear I turn around for two seconds and I look back at the banana and it is completely black.
These are the main things to look for when picking a pumpkin. After that, to cook the pumpkin all you have to do is remove the stringy inside parts (called the meat or the pulp) and discard them – you can keep the seeds if you want to roast them and eat them as a snack later. Then you cut the pumpkin into pieces and you can either steam or microwave on full power for about 15 minutes. After that, the pumpkin will come off of the shell very easily and you can keep this pumpkin in chunks or puree it for pies or anything you want. The cooked pumpkin can last an entire year in the freezer, so stock up now while the pumpkins are cheap : ).
What is your favorite way to eat pumpkin?? Tweet me @Fabioviviani !!